multi-zone particulate, formaldehyde and voc measurements in two lab houses under operation of different whole-building ventilation systems.
Energy consumption, healthy and comfortable space and durability.
Reasonable and predictable ventilation is required. Over-
Ventilation unnecessarily consumes energy due to increased indoor humidity and increases the risk of complaints about problems with comfort and indoor air qualityWet climate (
Kevin Rudd and Henderson 2007.
A higher-performance ventilation system can eliminate unnecessary excessive ventilation, thus providing the same or better indoor air quality and comfort at lower costs and risks.
A key gap and area for continuing research is to allow ventilation rate credit to run ventilation systems better, such as those with known external air sources and inlet paths, and predictable external air filtration and recycling filtration systems.
This will save energy and reduce the risk of moisture control in a humid climate while not compromising indoor air quality with respect to systems with the worst performance permitted by ASHRAEStandard 62. 2.
ASHRAE Standard 62.
2 Current assumptions:)
All houses covered by the standard are one well
Therefore, the actual distribution of ventilated air to each occupied space is not solved; b)
All ventilation systems perform equally well in providing outdoor air quality with usable space; c)
There is no benefit to the recycling mixing and recycling filtration of indoor air, as this is an inherent part of the ventilation system; and d)
The only important performance indicator is the relative annual average exposure, which ignores the acceptability of shorter exposure
Dissatisfied with smell and sensory stimulation.
Based on previous studies on ventilation airflow distribution, this study adds new elements for ventilation effectiveness studies, including sources of external air, particulate contaminants, formaldehyde, and volatile organic compounds (VOC)contaminants.
The expected result is to understand the whole-
The effectiveness of building ventilation systems is essential to promote optimal low energy consumption and high value ventilation solutions.
Ventilation rate set in ASHRAE Standard 62.
2 It is currently judged on the basis of the collective works of the members of the committee.
They are based on the concept that committee members feel good about them based on the information they currently know, based on their own experience and judgment.
In any health or medical study, no basis was published for the equivalent ventilation rate.
Engineering judgment based on new information is used, for example in this study, it is appropriate to adjust its own numbers according to engineering judgment.
These new data support the development of a credit factor system for a better performing ventilation system.
Test and analysis method description test house project involves testing in 1,475 [2 unoccupied places]ft. sup. 2](137 [m. sup. 2])single-story, single-
Family, independent residence at University of Texas Tyler, built as a laboratory residence--Tyler.
For a full report on the October 2012 test conducted, please refer to Kevin Rudd and Bergey 2014.
Twin Lab residences provide a unique opportunity to directly compare almost the same residences except for residence 1 (H1)
There is a ventilated loft and House 2 (H2)
There are unventilated attic components (
Also known as the sealed cathedral loft with spray foam insulation under the roof sheath). House 1 had 3. 5 inch (8. 89 cm)
Wooden frame wall with mesh and blown fiberglass insulation, loose fiberglass insulation on the attic floor. House 2 had 5. 5 inch(13. 97 cm)advanced-
Open frame wall
Spray Foam Insulation under walls and attic roof decks.
The kitchen and bathroom cabinet have been completed but there is no furniture and no one lives.
This allows the assessment to focus on the architectural elements themselves and avoid confusion with the activities of the occupants and the items that specific individuals bring into the home.
The area name for the test is as follows: * main areas include kitchen, dining area, living area, foyer and family bathroom;
* Main area includes master bedroom, main bathroom and walk-in closet;
* The front area is the bedroom on the front side of the House;
* The middle area is the bedroom between the main bathroom and the family bathroom;
* The garage area is 2-car garage;
* The attic area is the ventilated attic of Building 1 (
Including ventedattic on the garage)
No ventilation loft in House 2 (
Ventilation on house 2 garage is separate from unventilated atticand garage but is not monitored as a separate area).
The return air filter products of the central air conditioning system is new, 1 inch (2. 54 cm)
Thick filter with particle performance grade (MPR)of 700.
Measure the ability of the filter to capture particles between 0. 3 and 1. 0 micron.
ASHRAE minimum efficiency report value (MERV)
Report the ability of the filter to capture particles between 0.
3 Micron and 10 micron.
The available product literature roughly links the 700 filter to the MERV 9 filter.
Although the volume and surface area of the House are larger, the air tightness of house 2 is higher, with 789 [ft. sup. 3]/min (372 L/s)at 50 Pa (. 0073 in w. c. )
Differential pressure (CFM50)
Leak compared to the 1048 CFM50 leak in House 1 with a ventilated attic.
The cooling and heating load of house 2 is less than House 1, so the air flow of the space adjustment system is low (707cfm (334 L/s)
Compared with 1137 cfm (537 L/s), measured).
Leakage of outdoor pipes is 56 [ft. sup. 3]/min (26 L/s)at 25 Pa (. 0036 in w. c. )
The pressure difference of House No. 1, the pressure difference of House No. 2 is effective at zero, and all pipes are inside the building heat shell.
The purpose of the test method test program is to compare the whole-Architecture, more
Indoor air quality performance of continuous exhaust ventilation mixed with and without central system recycling, central-fan-
Integrated supply ventilation and energy recovery ventilation.
The focus of the test methods in this paper is more
Regional sampling of Air suspended particles, formaldehyde and VOCs to determine the impact of indoor air quality as a function ventilation system operation.
Another paper on this project focuses on
Fluorine-carbon tracers (PFT)
Determination of regional air changes and measurement between regions
Partition airflow running in different ventilation systems.
Five Tests were conducted in each room, including: Baseline, exhaust, mixed exhaust; Central-fan-
Comprehensive Supply (CFIS)(Rudd2011);
And energy recovery ventilator (ERV).
The test configuration is intended to represent the normal limitations of mosthomes when the space conditioning device may not work for a long time (
Overnight or above)
The bedroom door is closed at night. Baseline Test.
Baseline testing was performed without a ventilation system or a space conditioning system as a comparative reference. Exhaust Test.
The exhaust test was performed using the main bathroom fan, as in the new house the fan is usually larger and better in the bathroom and toilet fan.
Continuous exhaust adjustment to 45 cfm (21 L/s)
Meets ASHRAE Standard 62. 2-
2010 continuous fan flow is 1475 [ft. sup. 2](137[m. sup. 2]), 3-bedroom house.
Mixed test exhaust.
The exhaust of the mix test is the same as the exhaust test except that the central air distribution system fancycle turns off for 48 minutes and turns on for 12 minutes.
This study was conducted to see the effect of better ventilation air distribution efficiency and recycling filtration through overall filtration
Ventilation air sucked by exhaust fans is mixed through houses in unknown locations in the housing of the building.
The purpose of air mixing wasto in the central system is to achieve 0.
7 recycling turnover coefficient based on the study of the effectiveness of preferential ventilation (
Kevin Rudd and Lstiburek 2000,2016, 2008; Hendron et al. 2007; Townsend et al. 2009b). Central-Fan-
Integrated Power Test. The central-fan-
Comprehensive Supply (CFIS)
A ventilation system test was performed to evaluate the performance effect of drawing external air from the planned outdoor ventilation location, then filtering the air and fully allocating it to each air conditioning space area.
External air ventilation supply airflow wasset at 135 cfm (64 L/s)
Flow Station through calibration (Irisdamper)
, The central system fan is controlled to operate with a 33% duty cycle, 20 minutes off/10 minutes on.
Energy recovery ventilator test
Energy recovery ventilator (ERV)
Tested with a system independent of the central air distribution system.
The ERV pipes in these houses are configured to exhaust from two locations in the main area and are supplied to all bedrooms.
The total supply airflow of the measured ERV is 96 cfm (45L/s)
Therefore, the ERV timer control is set for the 50% runtime.
The ERV includes a washable pass filter at the entrance of the hot and wet energy recovery core inside the unit.
The filter was cleaned up before the Test started.
The general note for all tests is that all wall closet doors remain open to allow the air volume to fully interact with the additional space, and all bedroom doors are configured to have the same 0. 5 inch(1. 27 cm)
Weakened above the stained concrete floor decorated throughout the house. The first 12-
The hourly cycle of each test is stable-
Status of the second 12-medium particle, formaldehyde and VOC sampling
The hourly cycle of each test.
The test sequence is scheduled at 12-
The hour cycle of sampling will be overnight.
Bedroom door closure and mechanical ventilation are normal and important limitations in the home.
This test method eliminates the effect of solar heating on air exchange and uses the normally lower and less
Change the wind condition at night to limit the potential confounders in the interpretation of the results.
Monthly sampling of particulate matter in the air-
The State cycle of each test cycle (
Every 24-second half
Hour test cycle)
Air sampling of particulate matter in air (PM)
Mainly carried out (common area)
There is also a master bedroom area.
In some tests, additional PM sampling was performed outdoors as well as in the garage and attic of each house.
PM in six granularity (0. 3, 0. 5, 1. 0, 2. 0, 5. 0, 10. 0 micron)
Use a laser particle counter.
The efficiency of the meter is 50% @ 0. 3 [micro]m (1. 18E-05 inch)
For particles> 0, 100%. 45 [micro]m(1. 77E-05).
The sample flow rate is 0. 1 cfm (2. 83 L/min).
The meter is programmed to be in the second 12-
Hour cycle of each test, 1 sample size is collected. 5 [ft. sup. 3](43 L)each cycle.
The data is recorded electronically and imported into the worksheet for analysis.
Only the last twenty. one 15-
The participation cycle of minutes (
Cycle 20 to 40)Or the last 5.
25 hours ago.
Enter the house for analysis.
This is to analyze the data closest to stability.
State, and isolate particle loads from many occupants due to different ventilation system operations (researcher)disturbance.
12-sampling volatile organic compounds 90 minutes before endhour steady-
The State cycle of each PFT test cycle, mainly for VOC sampling (commonarea)
There is also a master bedroom area.
In some tests, additional sound sampling was performed in the garage and attic areas of each house. An 18 L(0. 64 [ft. sup. 3])
Collect air samples in each case.
Low solid adsorption sample feeder and calibration
Flow sample pump (0. 2 L/min(0. 007 [ft. sup. 3]/min))
Provided by a commercial laboratory.
Laboratory analysis of samples by thermal resolution/mass spectrometry based on the USEPA Compendium method17 and astm 6196.
Individual compounds and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)
Calibration was performed with respect to toluene.
A report was provided to determine the concentration of the \"Top 20\" VOCs commonly found in buildings.
12-60 minutes before the end of formaldehyde samplinghour steady-
Every 24-state period
During the hour test, formaldehyde sampling is carried out in the main room (common area)
There is also a master bedroom area.
In some tests, additional VOC sampling was performed in the garage and attic areas of each house. A 60 L (2. 1 [ft. sup. 3])
Collect air samples in each case.
DNPH sampler and calibration sample pump (1. 0 L/min (0. 035[ft. sup. 3]/min))
Provided by a commercial laboratory.
Based on astm method D5197, samples were analyzed in laboratory by DNPH/HPLC, and formaldehyde concentration was identified in laboratory report.
Atmospheric particle disturbance caused by occupant interaction has a great impact on large particles (5-10 micron)
But the effect on small particles is very small or even no effect (0. 3-1. 0 micron).
When researchers enter the house to start formaldehyde and sound sampling, this reaction occurs at the end of each test.
So, only the particle count loops before the researchers recalculate
Enter the house for analysis.
This paper aims to solve the detailed human health problems related to particulate pollutants (Carl et al. 2004)
But few backgrounds are useful.
Particles considered harmful to human health.
Granularity of 10 microns (micron or [micro]m)
Or less is usually not filtered by the nose and throat, nor does it reach the bottom.
Granularity of 2.
The gas exchange zone of the lungs can be entered at 5 microns and below.
Particle size of 0.
1 micron and less time can reach the organs through the lungs, including the heart and brain.
From a rough point of view, both bacteria, mold spores and mites allergens can reach 10 microns or less.
The allergens, tobacco smoke, soot and smoke of cats can all be 1 micron or less.
Viruses, tobacco smoke, soot and smoke can all be 0.
Below 1 micron.
Figure 1 shows a graph of cumulative particle counts for House 1 Main Area 1.
0 Micron granularity of all ventilation systems.
The result trend of 0 was found to be the same. 3 and 2.
For the sake of brevity, the microparticle dimensions of the Main and Main areas of buildings 1 and 2 are not included in the chart.
There was no significant difference in particle levels between the main area and the main area, but there was an important and consistent difference between the ventilation system.
The highest level of the exhaust system, followed by the baseline or ERV, followed by the exhaust system for mixing and CFIS.
Regardless of the particle size, the CFIS always shows the lowest number of particles.
As expected, this indicates that the 700/approximately MERV 9 filter in the return air grille of the central air distribution system is removing a large amount of particulate matter 0.
3 microns larger.
The differential particle count is calculated based on the cumulative particle count of the Main and Main regions within the 0 range. 3-2. 0micron.
Compared to the exhaust ventilation system, the average percentage difference of other ventilation systems is 69-
Small particles in Building 1 decreased by 85%, 52-
73% reduction in House2.
The CFIS ventilation system shows that due to the operation of the central air distribution system, the recycling of air filtration, the particle reduction of the two houses is the largest.
Microparticles were also measured in the attic and garagezone.
The level of particle count between the attic and garage of each house is quite close.
At the smallest particle size, the level of house 1 is a little lower than that of House 2, and the level of house 1 is almost the same.
0 micron size, lower level of house 2.
The size of 0 Micron is large.
The attic and garage of the two houses have lower particle content than the outside, especially in terms of large particle size.
During the two baseline tests, particulate matter was monitored outdoors, Day 1 and day 6.
In both tests, the temperature and relative humidity were similar both indoors and outdoors.
In the second Test, the wind speed was a bit high, but the location of the sample outside was a bit unaffected by the wind.
The particle count results from the two external tests showed significant consistency, indicating good repeatability of the measurements.
We do not have enough meters to measure the outdoor particles for each test, however, the measurements of these two tests, surrounded the entire test cycle, consistent with each other, 12 hours at a time is changing.
There are no obvious sources or weather disturbances near this suburb that give people special reasons to believe that between the first day of the test and the sixth day of the test, the outdoor particle condition will change much more than the first day of the test and the sixth day of the test.
Through baseline testing, consistent internal and external particle count measurements show that particle counts are almost the same for 0. 3 and 0.
5 micron granularity. For 1.
The number of particles in 0 is about 5 times lower than that outside.
Compared with the external count of 10 points, this trend of internal count gradually increases to about 100 times. 0 micron size.
Figure 1 the chart on the right side compares the formaldehyde concentrations for baseline and four ventilation system tests graphically.
The external formaldehyde concentration is not measured at this specific location, but it can usually be considered as 2-3ppb (2. 5-3. 7 [micro]g/[m. sup. 3])
This area of TexasEPA 1991).
In Building 1, all ventilation systems reduced the formaldehyde concentration at the indoor baseline concentration, 20 times higher than the outdoor expected concentration. Exhaust-
The indoor formaldehyde concentration can be reduced only by ventilation, followed by mixed exhaust, CFIS and ERV.
Mixed Exhaust may reduce the concentration at the time of exhaust
Just because of exhaust
Only interaction with the master bedroom area and the master bedroom area is more than interaction with the master bedroom area and the master bedroom area. Whole-
The average condition for house mixing is that the concentration of the main area and the main area is low.
In House 2, the exhaust system increased the formaldehyde concentration in the Main and Main areas or did not significantly change the formaldehyde concentration.
The CFIS and ERV systems showed a significant reduction in information aldehyde concentrations at baseline and in exhaust tests.
In general, The CFIS and ERV systems show that formaldehyde concentrations are reduced by 60% to 70% as the exhaust gas is discharged.
The formaldehyde concentration is measured in the ventilation attic of Building 1 and the unventilated attic of building 2 and during the exhaust process of the mixing test.
Compared to other test cycles, the exhaust of the mixed test has a higher wind (4-8 mph (6-13km/h)vs. 0-2 mph (0-3 km/h)).
Formaldehyde dispersion in ventilated attic (9 [micro]g/[m. sup. 3])
About three times as much as outdoor expectations (~3 [micro]g/[m. sup. 3])
Without a ventilated attic concentration (23 [micro]g/[m. sup. 3])
About eight times the original.
The garage of Building 1 and building 2 shows the formaldehyde concentration of 25 [micro]g/[m. sup. 3]and 35 [micro]g/[m. sup. 3],respectively.
The testing laboratory reported the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the top 20 VOCs.
The main trend is that baseline tests show the highest occupational concentration, followed by the exhaust and exhaust of the mixed ventilation system, followed by the CFIS and the ERV ventilation system.
Appendix A of Kevin Rudd and Bergey gives A complete list of concentrations and functional descriptions of individual VOCs found in living areas, lofts and garages (2014).
The highest concentration found in building 1 (
Also in the house in attic 1)
From PX and benzene--
Solvent used in the sealant for sealing the decorated concrete floor in two houses.
The Cretan floor capping agent used in building 2 was advertised as low-
And, based on the relatively low concentrations of PX and benzene in House 2, it apparently works as advertised.
House 2 has also used a special model for reportedly absorbing VOCs.
Two of the first three compounds found in the unventilated attic of house 2 relate to foam insulation used on walls and roofs.
In addition to the solvent used to complete the stained concrete floor, the main compounds found in both houses appear to be very low
Riskfragrance flavor products: wine \\-
Used as a fragrance chemical; Limonene--
Used in spices, cosmetics and cleaning products; Hexanal--
For flavor products; Carene--
Used in flavor and fragrance products;
Natural in pine, Rosemary, cedar, pine;
A previous study by Hodgson et al also found some of the same compounds found in this study.
2000, of which, in manufacturing and on-site-
The house built mainly by-
Pinene, formaldehyde, hexone and acrylic acid.
Similar to the living space, the highest concentration of garage VOCs is usually used for spices, perfumes, cosmetics and cleaning products.
Any vehicle or other equipment with an engine or fuel is not in the garage.
Total Volatile organic compounds (TVOC)
Concentration is the sum of all individual VOC concentrations reported.
Compared to the exhaust system, the average concentration of CFIS and ERV ventilation systems between the two houses was reduced by 47% and 57%, respectively.
Compared with the baseline test, the exhaust system increased the tvoc concentration by 37% in the main area of House 1 and the tvoc concentration by 18% in the main area of House 2.
This highlights that unknown sources of outdoor air and the air path of the exhaust ventilation system may cause more pollution to the indoor air, depending on which contaminants are collected on the road.
The TVOCconcentration concentration of the unventilated attic in Room 2 is three times higher (602 [micro]g/[m. sup. 3])
More than the airy attic of House 1.
Conclusion in this study, under the overall operation of four different machines, two basically identical houses were studied under baseline conditions.
The building ventilation system found that the exhaust ventilation operation showed higher concentrations of particulate matter, formaldehyde and other top 20 VOCs than the supply and balance ventilation system.
Exhaust ventilation shows that, on average, particle concentrations are 70% higher than ventilation systems that directly breathe in outdoor air and filter air.
The particle level of the exhaust system is the highest, followed by the baseline orERV, followed by the exhaust with the mixing system, followed by the CFIS.
No matter the size of the particles, the lowest number of particles is displayed.
This shows that 700 (roughly MERV 9)
The filter in the central air distribution system is removing a large amount of particulate matter 0.
3 microns larger.
The CFIS ventilation system shows an85 % and 0 is reduced by 73%. 3-2.
The 0 micron particles of Building 1 and building 2 are attributed to the recycled air filtration of the central air distribution system, respectively.
The CFIS and ERV systems show significantly reduced information aldehyde concentrations on the baseline and are 60-
Formaldehyde concentration in waste gas decreased by 70%.
The formaldehyde concentration discharged is about three times as expected outdoors, while the undischarged attic and two garages are about 8-10 Times high
The main trend of individual VOC concentrations shows the baseline with the highest VOC concentration, followed by the exhaust station of the mixed ventilation system, followed by the CFIS and the erv ventilation system.
In addition to the solvent used to complete the reinforced concrete floor, the main compounds found in both houses are very low
Risk flavor and fragrance products: Pinene; Limonene; Hexanal; Carene;
Total Volatile organic compound data showed that the CFIS and ERV ventilation systems reduced the TVOC mean between the two houses by 47% and 57%, respectively, compared to the exhaust system.
Compared with the baseline test, the exhaust system increased the TVOC by 37% in the main area of House 1 and the TVOC by 18% in the main area of House 2.
This suggests that unknown sources of external air and air paths of exhaust ventilation systems may result in more contamination of indoor air, depending on which contaminants are collected on the way in.
The project was supported by the United States. S.
Office of Construction Technology, Department of Energy.
Texas Institute of Allergy, indoor environment and energy (TxAIRE)
University of Texas
Taylor under the guidance of Roy CrawfordD.
John Vasselli provided two laboratories for the study.
DanielBergey of the former construction science company assisted in the test.
Charles J. Sandel, January
Wessler, TorbenSigsgaard, Bjorn Lange, Hasselgren, Linda Hagerhed-Engman. 2004.
Association between asthma and allergic symptoms in children and neighboring benzene Ester in house dust: nested case--Control Study.
Environmental Sanitation. 2004 October; 112(14): 1393-1397. EPA 1991.
Aviation information retrieval system of environmental protection bureau (AIRS). Hendron, R. , A. Rudd, R. Anderson, D. Barley, A. Townsend 2007.
On-site testing of roomsto-
Room distribution of outdoor air and ventilation system.
IAQ 2007: Minutes of conference on health and sustainable architecture.
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air
Air conditioning engineer LimitedHodgson, A. T. , A. Rudd, D. Beal and S. Chandra, 2000.
Concentration and emission rate of volatile organic compounds in new plant and site-Built Houses.
10: 178-indoor air192.
Kevin Rudd, Arne and Daniel Berger (2014).
\"The effectiveness of the ventilation system and the impact on indoor air quality.
\"Prepare For Gold, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USAS.
Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US building program. February. Rudd, Armin (2011).
\"Ventilation guide-Fully Updated.
\"Building Science Press, MA Somerville. September. ISBN-10:0-9755127-6-5.
Kevin Rudd, Amin and Joseph lstiburk 2008
Study on ventilation system of residential buildings.
Minutes of the 2008 ACEEE Summer building energy efficiency research conference at Pacific Grove, California, August.
Economic Committee on Energy Conservation, Washington, D. C. C.
Kevin Rudd, Amin, Hugh Henderson, 2007.
Monitoring indoor humidity and temperature conditions in a humid climateS. Residences.
Transaction (17, Dallas 2007).
American Society of refrigeration and air heating
Air conditioning engineer in Atlanta, Georgia.
Kevin Rudd, Almin, 2001, Joseph lsteiburek.
Clean breathing in the production workshop.
Home Energy, June, energy audit company, Berkeley, CA.
Kevin Rudd, Almin, 2000, Joseph lsteiburek.
Measurement of single ventilation and partition distributionFamily Homes.
ASHRAE transactions2013 (2):709-18, MN-00-10-3, V. 106, Pt. 2.
American Association for refrigeration and air heating
Air conditioning engineer in Atlanta, Georgia.
Kevin Rudd, Amin and Joseph lstiburk 1999
Central design method and economic evaluationfan-
Integrated supply ventilation system.
5: 25-indoor air30.
Coventry air penetration and Ventilation Center, UK. Townsend, A. , A. Rudd, and J.
Tracking gas testing using a calibrated multi-device extended ventilation system
Heating 115 (2). Townsend, A. , A. Rudd, and J.
A method of changing the ventilation airflow rate to achieve equivalent occupational exposure.
Heating 115 (2).
ASHRAE Armin Rudd, a member of Armin Rudd, is the head of ABT Systems LLC in Anville, Pennsylvania, and in carrying out the study, he was the head of Somerset, Massachusetts, building science.
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