delivering sustainability promise to hvac air filtration: part ii: life cycle sustainability of air filters.

by:Booguan     2020-09-02
What is sustainability?
The word \"sustainability\" comes from sustinere (Tenere to be held; sus, up).
The dictionary provides more than ten meanings for sustain, mainly \"maintenance\", \"support\" or \"endurance \"(Wikipedia, 2009).
The concept of using sustainable resources for future generations is not new, but the term \"sustainability\" did not appear in the environmental dialogue until 1970 generations.
It is clear that global environmental protection can only be achieved by meeting the social and economic needs of mankind.
Since 1980, sustainable development has attracted the attention of people around the world, especially politicians, business leaders, policy workers and practitioners of Social Sciences.
Today, sustainability or sustainability is related to almost every aspect of our lives that addresses human, social, economic and environmental issues.
There are many definitions in the literature, but the basic principles and concepts remain the same: balanced economic growth, environmental protection and social responsibility, and therefore, together they improve the quality of life for ourselves and for future generations.
The most widely cited definition of sustainable development and sustainable development is the report of the United Nations Committee on Brundtland (1987)
\"Our Common Future\": Sustainable development is \"to meet the needs of contemporary people without harming future generations to meet their own needs \".
It needs to coordinate the sustainable development of the environment, society and economy.
Scientific and technological understanding and technological development in sustainable development are key elements of sustainable development
Sustainable solutions.
To identify key needs for scientific and technological approaches to sustainable development, the United StatesS.
National Research Council (NRC, 1999), in afollow-
The up study, entitled \"our shared journey: the transition to sustainable development\", notes: To date, the political impetus for the rapid dissemination of the concept of sustainable development in public forums has also alienated it from the scientific and technological foundation.
Therefore, even if there is political will necessary for sustainable development,
Some progress is often not achieved.
Fortunately, this is no longer the case described by the NRC.
Scientists and technical professionals in the business, academic and government fields have begun to show growing interest in developing a scientific framework to systematically analyze and apply sustainability principles.
The purpose of these attempts is to consider creative human enterprises in the context of sustainable development.
Economy and Environment (or ecological), andsocietal.
According to recent reports, Harvard University
Northwest Science Building, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The aim is to promote the linkage of research between experts, scientists and students from different fields of science.
It not only emphasizes cross
It is designed, but it also provides a scientific model that addresses environmental, social and economic sustainability (HighBeam,2009).
What are we doing?
According to US media reportsS.
Department of Energy (DOE,2008)
Buildings consume about 35% of America\'s total energy and about 65% of its electricity each year.
The implementation of energy-saving technology can not only reduce the cost of buildings, but also reduce the carbon footprint of the environment.
Air ventilation systems usually account for a large share of building energy consumption.
On January 2006, the ASHRAE board of directors approved the \"ASHRAE road map for sustainable development\", in which it identified a strategic plan to promote sustainable architectural design and operation.
It guides ASHRAE\'s efforts to help its members in building sustainability and green building design, construction and operation.
William Harrison, 2008
In his speech, 2009 President ASHRAE said,
Deliver ASHRAE\'s commitment to sustainable development at ASHRAE\'s annual meeting in Salt Lake City (Harrison, 2008)
The sustainability of ASHRAE means energy efficiency and a healthy, efficient indoor environment.
Green building is a building that achieves high life cycle performance in the following areas (ASHRAE, 2006)
* Minimal energy consumption due to reduced demand and more efficient use of renewable and non-renewable energy
Renewable natural resources;
* Minimum atmospheric emissions that have a negative impact on the environment;
* Minimum discharge of hazardous liquids and solid waste;
* The negative impact of the site ecosystem is minimal;
* Maximum quality of indoor environment.
These sustainability guidelines require the use of energy-efficient air filters without affecting the quality of the indoor environment, because the pressure drop on the air filter products usually accounts for a large part of the total pressure drop in the ventilation system (Eurovent, 2005).
Part 1 of this study (Sun et. al, 2009)
We solved the strong demand from the terminal.
Users and manufacturers have developed industrial standards for the classification of energy efficiency of air filters and developed the wattage method based on airflow dynamics as follows: W = Q *[bar. [DELTA]P]/[eta]= v * A * [bar. [DELTA]P]/[eta](1)
W is the power of Watt;
Q is the flow rate [m. sup. 3]/s; [bar. [DELTA]P]
Average pressure drop in Pa; [eta]
System energy efficiency (%)
V is the surface speed (m/s);
A is the facial area ([m. sup. 2]). [bar. [DELTA]P]]= [1/M][[integral]. sub. 0. sup. M][DELTA]P(Q, K, T,H, x(t))(2)
Where Q is the airflow rate;
K is a parameter related to the type of dust and the dust loading mechanism;
What is the air temperature?
The air humidity is H; x(t)
Is a variable of the quality of the dust loaded on the filter;
T is the operation time.
The results show that the exponential pressure drop model can be used to simulate the real pressure drop curve.
Use ASHRAE 52 to load dust. 2methos, i. e. , [bar. [DELTA]P]= [1/M][M. [integral]0]a * [e. sup. bx][DELTA][P. sub. final]
Final pressure drop in Pa.
A and B are constants and M are the total dust mass (g).
The purpose of this paper is that, in addition to filtration efficiency and energy efficiency, there are many more factors that need to be considered in reality, judging from the sustainability of filters in air treatment devices, such as material sources and treatments, transport and handling, installation and replacement-
Potential --
Pollution and its impact on the ecosystem.
This article is part 2 of the ongoing research project \"providing sustainability commitment for HVAC filtration.
The sustainability of the filter will be further studied by using the life cycle cost analysis filter service life.
The presentation is based on a real case study of AHU in commercial buildings. An in-
In order to better understand the sustainable structural design of the air filter products, an in-depth study of the filter design, the medium structure and the dust loading form will also be carried out.
Material and method material and measuring two pocket filters (MERV 10)
This study in research the: surface load (SL)
Deep loading (DL).
They are used in air conditioning equipment for commercial buildings.
There are 40 filters (24\"x24\")
Installed in the AHU of this study.
Table 1 lists the operating conditions and cost facts.
Filter performance was evaluated using ASHRAE 52. 2-2007 (
General ventilation air test method
Cleaning Device for removal efficiency according to particle size).
The energy efficiency of the filter was evaluated by the wattage method (Sun, et. al, 2009).
In addition, microscope and SEM (
Scanning electron microscope
For structural studies and membrane analysis.
Life cycle cost analysis life cycle cost (LCC)
Analysis is a method to evaluate the life cost of the filter, usually including the cost of the filter ([LCC. sub. filter]), energy cost ([LCC. sub. energy]),freight cost ([LCC. sub. freight])
Maintenance costs ([LCC. sub. maint. ])
And disposal costs ([LCC. sub. disposal]).
Can be expressed as: LCC = [LCC. sub. filter]+ [LCC. sub. energy]+ [LCC. sub. freight]+[LCC. sub. maint]+ [LCC. sub. disposal](4)
Life cycle cost analysis TABLE 2 lists initial pressure drop, final pressure drop, and filter energy efficiency.
The energy efficiency is calculated according to the equation (1-3)
, A direct indication of the energy consumption used to flow air through each filter, I . E. e.
It takes an average of 296 Watts to run each SDfilter, and 141 watts per criminal pre-filter (
SL filter is required to ensure its service life).
But only 172 Watts are used per DP filter, no pre-filter is required when using DP filter.
As can be seen from Table 2, although the initial filter investment for DF filters is much higher ($4,000)
Than SL filter ($1,800), it saved60.
Compared to SD filters and pre-filters, 6% of the energy indicates a 39 reduction in co2 emissions.
Use a 40 DL filter at theAHU, 0 tons/year (
2009) carbon dioxide emissions calculator.
Due to the longer service life of the DL filter, the cost of filter replacement is also reduced
Outbound, processing, freight (see Table 2). It saved $4155.
Energy costs for 11/year and $738.
Miscellaneous costs including shipping, installation, filter replacement are 00/year
And processing fees.
A total of $5,093 was saved. 11 /yr (50. 8%)
By using a DL filterSL filters.
The pie chart in Figure 1 shows the cost share of each filter in the life cycle.
The results show that the main part of the total filtration system cost is the energy cost, which is 54.
6% of DL filter life cycle cost, 68.
SD filter 7%, 67.
4 pre-filters, 68.
The SLfilter plus pre-filter is 3%.
Further study on sustainable design of filter structure (1)
Figure 2 shows the SL and DL filters from the field where the DL filter shows the rigid self
Support Structure.
Lack of self-rigidity for Oft SD fittersupporting.
Regardless of whether the airflow is on or off, the pocket of the dl filter remains straight. [
Figure 2:
DL filters have gradient fiber density at the depth of the filter media to get the maximum dust
Loading and particle retention under minimum airflow resistance (see Figure 3-a).
Fiber through self-adhesive
There is no chemical adhesive or negative emission to the environment or thermal adhesion harmful to human beings.
Each pocket is manufactured by hot welding and sealing with a high burst and tear strength.
By forming without seams, the pocket is built into the frame for structural integrity, ensuring no leakage, fiber shedding or-pass.
Also, as shown in Figure 3-
C, there are specially designed welding spacers in each pocket to keep all airflow passages open at all times, minimize airflow resistance and provide uniformity in filter areas during on-site service[
Figure 3 slightly]
Figure 4 shows the dust captured by the DL filter after 12 months of use.
As you can see, large particles are captured in the relatively open upstream, and fine particles are captured in the middleman layer.
The downstream is a solid base with a smooth surface, clean and no dust or particle migration has been observed. [
Figure 4 slightly]
Figure 5 shows the dust captured on the SD filter after 12 months of use.
The upstream is covered by fine particles because the large particles are captured by the pre-filter.
Due to the lack of depth of the 3D gradient structure, the function of the SL filter, like the micro-layer of the DL filter, can capture small particles, which explains why it is necessary to run the SL filter to maintain normal serviceFigure 4-
B shows the migration of particles downstream from SLfilter, especially around stitching.
The downstream membrane test further confirms the fibers/particles that fall off in the SL filter (Figure 4-c). [
Figure 5 Slightly]
Today, almost every aspect of our lives comes to the conclusion of sustainability.
Although there are many definitions, the basic principles and concepts remain the same: the economy of balanced growth, environmental protection and social responsibility, so together they improve the quality of life for ourselves and for future generations.
Scientific understanding and technological development are the key elements of sustainable development, which will play an increasingly important role in achieving sustainable development.
Sustainable solutions.
Buildings consume about 35% of the energy in the United States.
Air ventilation systems account for a large share of building energy consumption, of which the pressure drop of air filters accounts for a large part of the total pressure drop.
In order to achieve the sustainability commitment of air filtration in HVAC systems, in addition to filtration efficiency and energy efficiency, there are many more issues that need to be considered in reality, such as material sources and production, filter installation and replacement
Transport and disposal, disposal and waste management, potential
Pass or pollute, etc.
The purpose of this paper is not to provide a complete way to assess the sustainability of air filters, but rather to look at the starting point of the filter lifecycle cost from the terminal
User side including filter cost, energy cost and miscellaneous cost.
Actual case studies have shown that energy costs are the largest part of the filter life cycle operation, followed by filter costs and miscellaneous costs including maintenance, shipping and disposal costs.
Finally, depth-loading (DL)
The filters in this study show significant advantages in sustainable filter design.
Although the cost of investment was much higher, it saved £ 60.
6% of energy costs are put into use, saving $5093. 11/year (50. 8%)
Carbon dioxide emissions fell by 39.
0 tons/year, which proves an example of a sustainable solution for indoor environmental quality.
The author would like to thank Mr.
Dr. Dan Woodman
Mr. Thomas Caesar.
Barry Kellar thanked them for their valuable comments and support on this research project.
Refer to ASHRAE, ASHRAE\'s roadmap for sustainable development, January 22, 2006.
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 52. 2-
2007. Test Method for general ventilation air
Removal efficiency cleaning device by particle size, ASHRAE 2007, ISBN: 1041-2336.
Carbon dioxide emissions calculator September 2, 2009.
Department of Energy (DOE)
Energy Efficiency Trends in residential and commercial buildings in October 2008.
EN779: 2002, particle air filter for general ventilation.
Determination of filtration performance, ISBN 058040903 1,05/12/02.
Environmental Protection Bureau (EPA)
Sustainable Development in December 17, 2009.
Eurovent, proposal for calculating life cycle cost of air filter, September 2005. Harrison, W. A.
\"Maintain-
Ashingashrae\'s commitment to sustainable development \", ASHRAE Conference, Salt lekelsey, June 21-25, 2008.
R & D department
Dominant commercial media, December 17. 2009.
National Research Council, \"our shared journey: the transition to sustainable development\", ISBN-November 1999-10: 0-309-08638-8.
Sustainability: human, social, economic and environmental, Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. Copyright[C]
2002 John Willie & Sons Limited
Progress in chemical engineering, January 1, 2009. Sun, C and D.
Woodman, 2009, providing sustainability commitment for HVAC air filtration, Part 1: Classification of air filter energy efficiency, ASHRAE trading, Volume 1115, Part 2. Sun, O. , D. Woodman, L. J.
Clark, New HVAC filtration solution for a healthy and sustainable environment, hb2003, Syracuse, NY, September13-
17, 09 United Nations Committee on Brundtland, Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, \"our common future,\" March 1987, ISBN 0-19-282080-X.
Sustainability of Wikipedia, December 17, 2009. (1)
The contents of this section were submitted on September 13 in the athb2003 section of Syracuse, NY --17, 2009.
Christine Sun is the R & D manager of Freedenberg filtration technology. P.
Hawkinsville, Kentucky
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